The beekeeping year has begun. Inside the hive the bees are preparing for winter. The queen lays fewer eggs, drones cower as their sisters evict them from the colony, and gaps in the nest are stuck fast by sticky red-brown propolis.
Foragers leave the hive early in the morning and return in the fading evening light. Their bodies are sprinkled with pollen and abdomens heavily laden with nectar. The queen and her workers are getting ready to begin all over again in spring, but first they must cosy themselves in a snug winter nest filled with the final drops of the season’s honey.
Of course, this seasonal activity varies with location, climate, available forage, and the situation within individual hives, but traditionally this is the picture of the start of the beekeeping calendar. On a recent holiday to the countryside, I saw plenty of bees (honeybees, bumbles and solitaries) out and about. On our return, the garden was buzzing with honeybees drinking from a bush with clustered dark-pink flowers like the last of the summer wine.
In my kitchen, the honey crop has been settling since Emily and I did the hard work of extracting a few weeks ago. In past years, our bees have made honey that was difficult to spin out in the extractor, but which didn’t take much filtering. This year the honey spun out fine, but it has required more time to settle, strain and filter.
For a few days, our harvest sat in storage containers to let air bubbles and lighter particles float to the top, and larger debris sink to the bottom till the froth, or ‘marmalade’, could be scooped off. When it was ready, I cleared the kitchen table and got out the buckets, muslin cloth and string to start filtering.
We had extracted the supers in three batches – the third batch being from Emily’s allotment hive – because it’s nice to bottle the honeys separately according to their unique taste and fragrance. Pepper’s crop smells of dark forests and Melissa’s harvest has an aroma of berries-and-lime.
The honey from Pepper’s and Melissa’s hives was first strained using fine muslin tied around two buckets with string. A wire mesh strainer also filtered out the honey that had pooled around the wax cappings.
With two buckets full, the air bubbles were still rising. I left the honey to settle for a second time, before scooping off the froth again, and filtering into jars to be bottled. I always use mini jars to make the honey harvest spread further, and keep it stored in a cool kitchen cupboard.
Most honeys crystallise over time as networks of crystals eventually form from the heavy concentrations of dissolved glucose suspended in the solution, though this process can vary from a few days to several years. I have one jar of Myrtle’s honey left from last year that still hasn’t crystallised.
Honey extraction, filtering and bottling is a lot of work for the hobbyist beekeeper, and even more work for the commercial beekeeper. For that reason, the leftover wax cappings and other gubbins have been set aside in mini buckets to clean up on a rainy day.
My kitchen surfaces and equipment were scrupulously cleaned, and I was careful to not to contaminate the buckets, jugs and jars with any drops of water. As Andy Pedley told me once, “Water is the enemy of honey.” However, if I were to sell honey, then I’d need to be more fastidious about the whole operation from straining and filtering, to filling each bottle to the exact amount stated on the label. My family and friends might appreciate a jar of my honey, a true taste of home, but it wouldn’t win any prizes at the national honey shows!
For the full legislation of the preparation and sale of honey, you can read the updated The Honey (England) Regulations 2015 on the government’s website.
The clean-up afterwards is almost as much work. Hot soapy water and towels to wash down and wipe clean sticky work surfaces, tables and equipment at least three times, but it was worth it!
At the apiary, the beekeeper is also preparing the hives for winter, and there are many things to think about. Is the queen laying well enough to take the colony through winter and to build up again in spring? Does a smaller, weaker hive need to be united with another colony to make a stronger hive for overwintering, with the provision there is no disease? Is the colony healthy and does treatment need to be given for varroa? Does the colony have sufficient stores or does it need feeding syrup before the end of autumn? Is the hive equipment in good order with gaps in the wood sealed and mended, entrances reduced against robbers and pests, and guard against woodpeckers and mice ready to put on? Are the supers staying on the hive or do they need to be cleared and removed for safe storage against wax moth?
Yes, quite a lot to consider, but most importantly is thinking about how to enjoy the last couple of months spent with the bees. Here’s Melissa’s hive with Emily removing the second tray of Apiguard after the workers tried to stick it to the top bars with propolis.
After a long session of afternoon tea with the Ealing beekeepers, the smoker was lit, with some tips from Pat, and Emily and I were off to inspect our two remaining hives. The beginners had already checked Pepper’s hive, spotted the queen, and found a very high number of varroa mites (almost 600) on the board. This may be due to Apiguard treatment, but it is still disappointingly high. The only positive is that it is better to have varroa mites dropped onto the monitoring board, as a result of varroacide treatments, than in the hive.
Peppermint’s colony was calm and well behaved. These busy bees are rearing new brood like summer is here to stay, and the queen was spotted walking nicely across the comb. The hive is rather low on stores. We didn’t take any honey off of this hive, but it may benefit from autumn feeding after the Apiguard treatment. The mite drop so far is around 100, a lower number is to be expected from a newer artificially swarmed colony.
Melissa’s colony is strong and well, and the queen was found with her head in the comb searching for suitable cells to lay her eggs. Signs of unsuccessful attempts to overthrow the queen by the workers remain. It looks like Melissa will lead this hive into next spring.
We spotted workers with yellow-splashed faces, perhaps from head-butting pollen into cells or from a flower they had visited (sorry for the blurry photo above, fortunately Emily’s finger is pointing to a worker with yellow warpaint). The white-striped Himalayan balsam foragers were also making their way through the colony.
We closed the hives with records written and plans discussed for the start of the season ahead.
Autumn mists have been falling on roofs and tree tops early in the morning this August. Yet, autumn is my favourite time of year, and in many traditions it is a time to clear out the old and to make space for new things. I can’t feel too sorry for the end of summer, only excitement for the inspiration that autumn will bring.
Thanks so much for all your hard work bottling it up. Even after a few weeks settling my allotment honey is full of tiny bubbles and the marmalade froth keeps reforming at the top after I scoop it off. Your garden looks so mistily beautiful in the last photo.
You can try the marmalade froth on toast, if you’re not planning to make a mead with it (another tip I’ve heard from Andy, Pat and John over the years)! I love misty mornings with a cup of tea and time to think. It’s one of the most beautiful times of day, my iPhone camera couldn’t capture it perfectly but maybe that’s ok 🙂
It sounds absolutely fascinating. I had no idea until I started reading your blog just how much work was involved in beekeeping.I’m afraid the bees would fare less well under me.
xxx Huge Hugs xxx
There is a lot of work in beekeeping even for the hobbyist, but it is suited to those who are obsessive about bees! 😉 Luckily for us the bees work pretty hard too 🙂 I’m happy you enjoyed it, August is a nice time to enjoy just opening up the hive (if the season has gone well) to appreciate the company of bees for a few more months before they overwinter. Hugest hugs! xxx
Good work! Looks like the beekeeping year coming to an end, instead of beginning, though?
Thanks! The beekeeping year coming to an end (with the last honey harvest) is also the beekeeping year beginning, which in some ways is nice to think of an end also being a beginning 🙂
You make the process look so tidy!;) Love that last photo. Although, I’m a bit less enthused about the coming of autumn than you are.
The pictures lie – it is messy! I’ve washed my kitchen table and surfaces three times and I’m still finding sticky bits despite trying to be organised. How does honey get everywhere? 🙂 Ah autumn, I will miss seeing the bees less and the coming of winter, but for some reason autumn is still my favourite season.
If there is the tiniest bit of wax anywhere it will be dogging you for months to come. The honey is easy by comparison. I’ll make a project of reasons to embrace autumn and…what follows. Maybe that will help.
You never get out beeswax except maybe with washing soda, but it takes months as you say! I need to varnish the old wood in our kitchen before I start playing with beeswax! 😉 Look forward to your autumn projects 🙂
That honey looks scrumptious, even if not 100% compliant with The Honey (England) Regulations 2015. I’d take the risk, for sure! RH
It is scrumptious but why do you say not 100% compliant with the Honey Regs?
I think RH is pulling my leg, Emily 😉 A joke I made in post (though it’s probably true) that my honey processing operation is probably not entirely compliant with the honey regs. After reading they’re even more fastidious about hygiene than I am (impossible!) and I’ve not made sure of weighing the exact quantity of honey poured into each jar, for example 😉
Only that it’s a typical statutory instrument. 5 Parts with 23 clauses, 9 subcl, 29 subsubcl. 3 Schedules with 20 cl, 26 scl, 4 sscl. 20 Cross-refs in the explanatory notes. I only said “…even if…” but how easy it might be for the most diligent honey-producer not to cross-check S.I. 2003/2243, amended by S.I. 2005/1920, 2626, 2014/1855! RH
Yes – noting the updated clauses with links to full regs and I’m definitely persuaded never to try and sell my honey!
He he! Is that a hint RH? I’d have to check about posting to the Abaco but if you’re still around Chiswick way (was it Chiswick?) then I could pop a mini jar through 😉
Glad to hear it’s a leg-pull… I was all ready to jump in and indignantly defend our honey and your filtering skills!
He he! You have to watch RH! 😉
I am going to extract in a few weeks. How much honey did you end up extracting from how many hives?
We only extracted three supers. We took one super of two hives at the apiary (leaving each hive a super for winter) and one super from Emily’s allotment bees. I’ve been filtering and bottling the honey from the apiary in my spare time late evening after work or early Saturday mornings. I think about 60lbs of honey from the apiary’s two supers, though I’m rubbish at guessing quantities. It’s taken a while as the honey had needed more settling and filtering this year before bottling. How much honey are you taking?
Not sure, I just looked and the supers are really looking good from my three hives, even though one swarmed earlier. I will let you know though!
Sounds like your bees have had a good summer too! I’m happy to hear that. And I’d love to hear what your honey crop is like 🙂
I avidly read your beekeeper’s notes and I note this is the start of the bee keeping year. It will be our first full year. We have extracted our honey but not bottled it yet. We cannot treat yet as it is too hot. I would like to get the plaques in as quickly as possible in case the autumn arrives sharply. However, our bees too are enjoying the last foraging and are as busy as ever. Amelia
The first year is so exciting as are all the years after! Congratulations on your first honey crop – it sounds like your ladies are still enjoying the season 🙂 I’m glad you’ve enjoyed this year’s notes too, although I’ve learned over the years that there are too many opinions in beekeeping to think about doing the ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ thing. Beekeeping comes by experience and patience of learning from successes and mistakes. The most relaxed beekeepers at the apiary are those who’ve been doing it for a decade or more, and I’ve guess they’ve learned to just go with whatever happens each season without worry much about it. Their bees seem pretty happy with that approach too 😉
All that honey making and putting into jars is a lot of work.. But I am sure its so satisfying.. The preparation is a lot of hard work but the end results are worth it.. I feel like that with my jam making especially the jellies which go through the process of straining.
Lovely to see your hives are thriving and the Queen is still ruling. And yes those cooler autumnal mornings are creeping in now and the leaves are falling as the nights draw in..
Loved reading this post Emily.. xx
I meant Emma.. xxx
The summer queens have a lot to celebrate going into winter – our queens are starting to live for a longer time now, after a some bad seasons a few years ago. (https://missapismellifera.com/2012/05/15/myrrh-queen-of-the-monsoon/)
I’d love a go at jam making though, particularly after picking two buckets of blackberries at the weekend. Hmm, maybe a recipe for blackberry-and-honey jam!
The Blackberry and Honey Jam sounds a Good mix.. But you would probably destroy the quality of the honey if you had to boil ..
A good tip when you soak your blackberries to get the little bugs out.. We use salt in the water and then some Cider Vinegar a couple of good spashes.. ( My Daughter past on that tip she read on the net ) That helps stop your blackberries from going mouldy if you keep in the fridge after straining etc.. I usually keep some to eat with my breakfast cereal and freeze the rest on open trays so they stay separate for pies and smoothies..
Thank you for the Link also 🙂 Happy Harvest time 🙂 xxx
Thanks for the tip on salt and vinegar- I’ll try it next time! 🙂