Bees or honey?


“I wonder what our bees are doing today?” asked Emily as we watched the rain trickle down the windows of her wedding at the Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts. It had been a beautifully mixed day of sunshine and showers – perfect for rainbows but not for bees. We both reflected that we hadn’t missed a good Saturday’s beekeeping.

Fast forward to Sunday evening and getting home from duties of chief bridesmaid to messages waiting from Jonesy and Thomas. They had found queen cells in two of our hives and had carried out artificial swarms. This is what our bees were doing.

Queen cells x3

Queen cells look like peanut-shell structures. Can you see the three magnificent queen cells, and perhaps a fourth to the left, more than an heir and a spare. Image © Thomas Bickerdike

It is the swarming season, particularly in May to July, and swarming is a natural part of the honeybee life cycle. The worker bees build queen cells and before a new queen emerges, the old queen flies off with half the bees, and honey, to find a new home. It’s how the species reproduces itself. Honeybees might build queen cells to replace a queen that is old or sick (called supersedure) but it’s often tricky to predict their intent. We were lucky that Jonesy and Thomas had been around to catch our swarmy bees, and fortunate that there was hive equipment standing by at the apiary.

So we had three hives and now we have five.


The following Saturday as I stood looking at our five hives and listening to Thomas explain what had been done (Chili’s and Chamomile’s hives had been artificially swarmed), I heard the words of my first-year mentor Ian ringing in my ears: “It’s bees or honey”.

Flashback to April 2010 to finding queen cells in my first hive and carrying out an artificial swarm, which Ian had said was making ‘an increase’. I had two hives from one and, I thought, twice the honey, not realising that swarming sets back honey production by a few weeks and that two smaller colonies might be less likely to produce as much honey as one larger colony. As it turned out, the bees were trying to supersede the old queen and I recombined the colonies with a new queen, Jasmine. I got a strong-sized hive with four supers of honey (I took two and left two for the bees) which paid for the following year’s beekeeping. Sadly, Jasmine’s bees didn’t survive the winter as nosema swept through the apiary and there were heavy losses, but I like to think that she left me a parting gift of a hive partner, Emily.

Four years on, we’ve had a pattern of small swarmy colonies and no honey. ‘Five hives can easily become ten,’ Thomas said. He was right, and Myrtle’s hive would be next to try and swarm. I could see the new hive equipment bought to last this year and several more would quickly disappear if it wasn’t managed. The bees don’t pay for themselves and getting honey does help, or it’s just a very expensive hobby. Also, I really want to get honey this year. I love keeping bees for the bees, but I am a beekeeper – a centuries-old craft of keeping bees for honey and wax as well as bees. To put so much money, time and effort into a hobby and to fail to achieve one of the major goals every year is demotivating.

What to do? I felt like Emily and I look after our bees well and do all the things we’re supposed to do, while learning new things on the way. Other beekeepers at our apiary get a fair crop of honey even after seasons of prolonged rain and poor mating. I was puzzled why we didn’t – time to gather expert opinions, I asked Pat and Thomas what they thought. Pat agreed that each year we had too many splits, small colonies and not enough honey. “You could requeen,” he suggested as a way to change the swarmy nature of our bees. I didn’t like that idea as we have very nice queens. We could, of course, sell the extra hives, but we’d still have small-sized colonies. Fortunately, there were other options: “You could wait and see which queens are the best layers, then combine the colonies.” I liked this suggestion best as it meant we’d have stronger-sized colonies with more bees and stores, while the spare queens would go to beekeepers who need queens. We’d be spreading the gene pool of our nice-natured bees to other colonies and giving ourselves a better chance of honey!


This laid-back drone doesn’t make much fuss as Pat gently tries to remove a male varroa mite from hitching a ride on his back.

For now all talk of plans would have to wait. Pat and Thomas helped to inspect the artificially swarmed hives from Chili’s and Chamomile’s colonies for extra queen cells. We found and took down a couple, leaving the strongest-looking queen cells in the hives and hoping to prevent further cast-off swarms. These two colonies must now be left undisturbed for a few weeks while the best candidates emerge to fly out and mate, and become the new queens. Fingers crossed for good weather in late May/early June.

Then onto our three original hives – Chili’s and Chamomile’s were checked for further queen cells that needed to be taken down, “It’s about managing your queen cell situation now,” said Pat. We then inspected Myrtle’s hive (nothing to report there).

I’m used to inspecting hives and teaching beginners at the same time, but it seems this had taught me some bad habits. “You need to be quicker than that,” said Pat. “Know what you’re looking for. Right, you’ve done that – now put back the frame and move on.” This might have been the most useful advice of the day. Pat felt our colonies were small and unproductive (from a honey-producing point-of-view) because they were opened too frequently and for too long. Emily and I are good at using our hives to teach about bees, and we enjoy that, but perhaps we needed to be more disciplined on doing beekeeping. I reflected that we often spent more than 10 minutes per inspection and forgot or ran out of time to do hive management: cleaning up wax around frames or working the frames for better honey production, checking whether the varroa monitoring board should be in or out, properly cleaning up and updating hive records.

With that thought, a beginner walked up as I closed Myrtle’s hive. It was with a pang of guilt that I said we couldn’t reopen the hives, but there are plenty of other things for the beginners to see at the apiary and perhaps the colonies should be on a rotation for teaching beginners. Andy had brought along an observation hive because their session that week was on swarming. Very topical.


A curious crowd was gathering round an experiment in African beekeeping – I was admiring of the beautiful natural honeycomb in this top bar hive (below).

You’ll notice that many photos on my bee posts are being taken by iPhone and Instagram – there is a deliberate reason for this. I’d started leaving my camera at home more often when going to the apiary to make myself focus on doing beekeeping rather than photography. Perhaps, unconsciously, I had already begun to suspect what Pat had said was true and I was dallying too much on other things during hive inspections.


The afternoon was already getting late – inspecting five hives even with the help of two experienced beekeepers doesn’t leave much time for tea and cake – so I left our expanding bee empire feeling more hopeful that dreams of honey might not crumble.

Yesterday on my way home from work, I saw this lovely buff-tailed bumblebee slowly working a flower in the chilly evening air. Her wings were slightly frayed at the edges and I wondered if she was a worker approaching the end of her short summer cycle. A reminder of the fragility of life, the fleeting nature of summer, and a year in beekeeping that is fast flying past.

beesorhoney6Edit: I’ve started using beetight online hive records, also available as an iPhone app and leaving no excuse for not updating hive records during each visit or afterwards on the tube home. Our hive records are archived weekly on my blog here as future updates will include more data on weather, temperature, hive progress, behaviour and temperament, which may prove useful in future.


13 thoughts on “Bees or honey?

    • Thanks Linda, that’s very kind of you. Well, the bees were pretty fierce today as a thunderstorm was approaching, hoping they’re not building more queen cells while dark skies cloud over. Might try to do inspections again tomorrow… Fingers crossed!

  1. I suppose it’s the time of year but a lot of questions had been passing through my mind about bees and swarming and taking honey so your post was very well timed and answered my questions. Amelia

    • Thanks Amelia, I’m glad it was well timed – this is the swarming season! That is the idea of my blog, particularly this year when I’m asking myself searching questions about being a beekeeper – I hope by sharing my thought processes as well as what we’re doing with the bees will be helpful to others.

      We did have a bad year in 2012 with rain and failing queens and much of 2013 was about recovery from that, but in 2011 we didn’t get much honey either and this year many beekeepers I spoke to yesterday are filling up their first or second super of honey already when again our bees are nowhere near putting on a super – I find it quite a concern and have to ask why this is, as it’s becoming a very expensive hobby to maintain.

      Opening our hives often and for so long to teach each week seems likely to be a factor, the more I speak to other beekeepers about this. I also remember in my first year Ian teaching me to do inspections each week with the specific goal of achieving honey, and others saying that they do the same – if you really want honey then it’s a good idea to have this in mind for the weekly inspections and how you manipulate the growth and production of the colony matters. I’ve learned honey doesn’t always happen by accident.

      Although good weather does help and not being just a weekend beekeeper. I had Saturday afternoon only to check the bees this bank holiday and there was a thunderstorm that made inspections impossible. So fingers crossed next Saturday is better weather!

      I hope those thoughts are helpful and with your lovely weather and garden you’re sure to get delicious honey!

      • Thanks for your helpful comments but I still have not taken the plunge. Family commitments haven’t allowed me to have enough time to start but I follow the bee keeping year and I am reading “L’Abeille de France” which is the equivalent to “Beecraft” Strangely, one of my concerns was to be overrun with honey! Amelia

      • I dream of being overrun by honey! But a wise decision not to make the commitment to bees until other commitments lessen, the bees can be very demanding!

  2. Re last pic, EST: until we planted some pink Cosmos last year, I had no idea what bee magnets they are. Bumbles seem to love straddling the yellow bit in the middle (precise botanical name please?), get an all-over dusting of yellow in the process… RH

    • I had no idea they were pink Cosmos RH. I see bumbles frolicking in them each day and having such a good time that I’m not the only human passerby entranced into stopping and staring. ‘Yellow bit in the middle’ – arm, ‘unbelievably good-tasting pollen for bees’? EST

  3. Lots to think on! I am in favour of recombining too, perhaps the old queens could be given away to anyone in need of a queen. Thanks for looking after them while I buzzed off on honeymoon!

    • Welcome back Mrs Scott! Yes, the bees have been busy and Thomas has been great – in fact we may yet have another colony at Perivale so we’ll have to start thinking of what to do with all those bees … But that’s for next week’s post. You’ve enough to absorb for now. You’ll notice I’ve updated this post with a link to our new online hive records at Perivale in an effort to be much more organised with all visits to our hives, what’s been done, when we’ve had teaching or non teaching inspections on colonies, and so they are more easily updatable and accessible for us both. Beetight is pretty good, some fields I’d like aren’t there but it has a good notes section.

    • Welcome back Mrs Scott! Yes, the bees were obviously trying to swarm off and join you on honeymoon 🙂 Saturday was so thundery that I’ve never experienced such aggressive behaviour from bees even just walking around the hives, so it must have given them an almighty headache. Thomas checked his and our hives on Sunday when it was sunny and said all was well, with a bit more news but that can wait till this Saturday…

  4. Pingback: A wedding present from the bees | Adventuresinbeeland's Blog

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